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Bose-Einstein Condensate - Coldest Place in the Universe
 
06:12
A short video explaining how a Bose-Einstein Condensate of sodium atoms is created in lab at MIT by Martin Zwierlein. Using highly focused, single frequency lasers it is possible to cool the single sodium atoms, negating their thermal vibrations by inducing electronic transitions which effectively "pushes" them into place. This brings the atoms down to millikelivn temperatures. However to achieve nanokelvin temperatures, magnetic fields are used to trap the atoms in a well or cup so that the atomic resonance of the atoms begins to match the frequency of the laser light so that , like in a cup of coffee or tea, the hottest atoms are boiled off the surface by "blowing" on the atoms with polarized laser light. This makes the atoms that are in resonance with the light move towards the center, leaving the hotter atoms to boil off. This then shrinks the gas cloud into a supercool sphere. This arrangement is known as a magneto-optical trap and using it the atoms can be made colder than anywhere else in the universe, cold enough for the subtle effects of quantum mechanics to make the wavefunction of the atoms coherent, just like how a laser makes the photons in a laser medium coherent. The wavefunctions then constructively interfere until the atoms behave as a single quantum object known as a Bose-Einstein Condensate. In quantum mechanics, a class of particles which have an integer quantum spin are called bosons. For example, photons, gluons, higgs boson etc. Any number of bosons can go to the same quantum state. Thus they obey Bose-Einstein statistics. The wave function associated with bosons is symmetric. A class of particles which have a half- integer spin are called fermions. Example - proton, neutron, electron, etc. Unlike bosons, only two fermions (at maximum) can go to the same quantum state, as dictated by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. They obey Fermi-Dirac statistics. The wave function associated with fermions is anti-symmetric. An atom can also be classified as a composite boson or a composite fermion. To find whether an atom is a composite boson or a composite fermion, you need to look at the net spin of the atom due to its constituent particles that make it. For example, consider the simplest of the atoms - Hydrogen. Hydrogen has a proton and an electron. A proton is a half-integer particle and so is an electron. Therefore, the net spin of a normal hydrogen atom is one, which is an integer. Therefore, hydrogen is a composite boson. If we consider a helium-4 atom, there are two protons, two neutrons and two electrons. Each of these particles has a half integer spin. Therefore, the net spin of a normal helium atom is an integer. Hence, helium is also a composite boson. With Sodium, the number of protons is 11, the number of neutrons is 12, and therefore, the number nucleons is 23 which is an odd number. Since the number of electrons in Sodium atom is 11, this makes the total number of constituent particles 34 which is even and hence Sodium atom is a composite boson. So by this reasoning, all Sodium-23 (as well as Rubidium-87) atoms are bosons which means that the spin of the atoms is an integer. Bosons obey Bose-Einstein statistics and do not obey the Pauli Exclusion prinipcle and can form non degenerate condensates. So, because bosons tend to bunch together it is possible for a macroscopic group of N-bosons to form a giant wave function called a Bose-Einstein Condensate. Therefore, a Bose-Einstein Condensate is essentially a macroscopic occupation of the ground state of a quantum system at thermal equilibrium, and is considered to be a quantum phase transistion just like superfluidity and superconductivity. This quantum state can be seen in wildly differing physical systems, from liquid helium to electron pairs in superconductors to the laser-cooled atoms in vacuum chambers as shown in the video. Bose--Einstein condensates composed of a wide range of bosonic atoms and isotopes have been produced. Related experiments in cooling fermions rather than bosons to extremely low temperatures have created degenerate gases, where the atoms do not congregate in a single state due to the Pauli exclusion principle. To exhibit Bose--Einstein condensation, the fermions must "pair up" to form compound particles (e.g. molecules or Cooper pairs) that are bosons. The first molecular Bose--Einstein condensates were created in November 2003 by the groups of Rudolf Grimm at the University of Innsbruck, Deborah S. Jin at the University of Colorado at Boulder and Wolfgang Ketterle at MIT. Jin quickly went on to create the first fermionic condensate composed of Cooper pairs in a superconductor.
Views: 1672702 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman - Patents
 
06:55
Richard Feynman talks about some of his unusual patents and how they came into being through some of his own ideas for possible.nuclear powered vehicles, which he brainstormed during his time working on the atomic bomb in The Manhattan Project. Feynman himself had no idea they would patent these ideas and only found out about it when he was offered a job of being the head of a research team to develop a nuclear powered aircraft. Feynman did not accept this job, as he was a theoretical physicist and aircraft engineering was of no interest to him. For legal reasons, a dollar was to be exchanged for the patent papers. Since Feynman received no dollar, he went to the patent office to get his dollar and used it to buy sweets as a joke to the bureaucratic and anal nature of patent law and the goons who enforce it.
Views: 173055 Muon Ray
What Can Quantum Computers Do?
 
04:28
Want to Learn More about Quantum Computers? Check out: http://muonray.blogspot.ie/2014/11/quantum-computation-architecture.html Lockheed Martin, NASA and Google all have one thing in common: they all own quantum computers. These quantum computers are superconducting chips which were designed by D-wave systems and were fabricated at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratories. NASA and Google share a quantum computer for use at the Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab using a 512 qubit D-Wave Two that would be used for research into machine learning to assist in using artificial neural networks to search through large astronomical data sets for extrasolar planets and to increase the efficiency of internet searchs by using A.I. metaheuristics on heuristical search engines. Such A.I. metaheuristics may resemble global optimization problems similar to classical problems such as the travelling salesman, ant colony or swarm optimization, which can navigate through maze-like databases. Using entangled particles as qubits, these algorithms can be navigated far faster than conventional computers and with much more variables. By using a decentralized, quantum swarm AI, it may be possible to simulate emergent behavior aswell, such as Langton's ant, which could see the rise of quantum-based simulated intelligence which could go so far as to create realistic cellular automatons on a computer. The use of sophisticated metaheuristics on lower heuristical functions may see computer simulations which can select specific sub routines on computers by themselves to solve problems in a truly intelligent way. In this way the machines would be far more adaptable to changes in sensory data and would be able to function with far more automation than would be possible with normal computers. Moreover, it may be possible to use metaheuristics to perform error correction on software using neural networks by comparing the optimized problem solving in a quantum computer with the regular programming software of a regular computer. Since regular computers are not quantum mechanical, they must be programmed classically. However, by using quantum metaheuristics it may be possible to perform optimization problems using Artificial intelligence on a quantum computer and then compare to the command line architecture in a piece of conventional software on a classical computer, which may be too complex to modify or to check for errors using human software engineers. It may become routine that to design large software, rather than use a team of engineers to design a single piece of large software and to do multiple tests, revisions and redistribution, quantum optimization problems will be run though a machine instructed to do a particular task and the software will be designed around such optimizations. Computer chips could even be designed to be superconducting and quantum compatible in a factory or laboratory and classically operating in conventional computer equipment. In this way, optimization and programming could be done on the chips in a factory or lab to search for any possible errors that could arise in designing software. After which the chips would be used in conventional computers for their particular tasks. Quantum computers may well find their place in industry more than anywhere else, designing AI optimized software around computer chips.
Views: 298608 Muon Ray
Michio Kaku and Bill Nye on the 4 Forces of Nature
 
02:54
Michio Kaku talks to Bill Nye about the 4 Fundamental Forces of Nature, how they manifest in natural processes and how they are detected and how they play a part in our understanding of fundamental interactions in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. This is from the Science Channel's 100 Greatest Science Discoveries: Physics.
Views: 55135 Muon Ray
Is Warp Drive Physically Possible?
 
14:22
Description of Alcubierre Warp Drive in Context of General Relativity: http://muonray.blogspot.ie/2016/11/the-possibility-of-warp-drive-in.html The physics of spacetime described by Einstein's Theory of General Relativity allows spacetime to become warped due to the relationship between matter/energy density and the gravitational field described by the Einstein Field Equations, in the most general form Ruv - (guvR)/2 + guv = (8pG/c4)Tuv, which equates that matter and energy found in the large scale structure of the universe creates a positive torsion in spacetime, causing the warping of spacetime which is associated with the strength of the gravitational force. In quantum mechanics, zero point energy fluctuations can create negative energy density which should theoretically, in a large enough density, create a negative torsion on spacetime in general relativity. The consequences of these theories, when combined, could change our common sense notions of motion and provide a way to challenge the cosmic speed limit, the speed of light. In 1994, Miguel Alcubierre developed a geodesic equation to describe space-time warped in a bubble around a ship, creating a "warp drive". The warp drive proposed by Alcubierre could achieve near light speeds and even faster-than-light speeds by distorting space-time. To accomplish this, a theoretical device would generate a field of negative energy that would squeeze or stretch space-time, creating the bubble. The bubble would ride the distortions like a surfer on a wave. As evidenced by the uniformity of the Cosmic Microwave Background from the Big Bang, which is explained by inflationary cosmology, space-time can expand so quickly that objects can move faster than the speed of light. Therefore the current models of physics generally allow for the existence of a warp field that can accelerate objects faster than the speed of light. The real questions to ask is whether or not such a warp field can exist on macroscopic scales and if so can it remain stable for long enough to observe its effects, on light in a laser interferometer for example. Moreover it is unknown how it is technologically possible, i.e under what conditions does matter allow for the creation of a negative energy density? In 1948, Theoretical Physicists Hendrik Casimir and Dirk Polder proposed that a negative presssure can exist due to quantum vacuum fluctuations operating on very small scales in space and time and that if two uncharged metallic plates in a vacuum, placed a few micrometers apart the quantum fluctuations should create a force between the 2 plates due to a differential vacuum energy density between the inside and outside of the plates. In a classical description, the lack of an external field automatically means that there is no field between the plates, and no force would be measured between them. However when the zero-point field is instead studied using the QED vacuum of quantum electrodynamics, it is seen that the plates do affect the virtual photons which constitute the field, and generate a net force. The force can give either an attraction or a repulsion depending on the specific arrangement of the two plates. Although the Casimir effect can be expressed in terms of virtual particles interacting with the objects, it is best described and more easily calculated in terms of the zero-point energy of a quantized field in the intervening space between the objects. It was not until 1997, however, that a direct experiment, by Steve Lamoreaux, described above, quantitatively measured the force (to within 15% of the value predicted by the theory) Previous work in the 1970's had observed the force qualitatively, and indirect validation of the predicted Casimir energy had been made by measuring the thickness of liquid helium films by Sabisky and Anderson in 1972. Subsequent experiments with liquid Helium-3 approach an accuracy of a few percent. This could also allow for further studies in solid state physics on how the Casimir effect could be controlled at the nanoscale and what physics and applications can be gained from it. Some of this research, although abstract, may help us to understand how electronic transitions occur at the smallest of scales and how to suppress noise, such as that caused by the Casimir effect, in nanoscale circuitry, such as in the emergent fields of quantum circuitry. Therefore by probing some deep questions of physics, and examining theories such as "Warp Drives" we may uncover a great deal of knowledge and gain proposals for some interesting experiments, perhaps even stumbling upon the foundations of warp drive itself along the way.
Views: 3582229 Muon Ray
Murray Gell-Mann talks about Richard Feynman
 
05:31
In this interview, Murray Gell-Mann talks about his experience of working along with Richard Feynman in Caltech. A good insight into the two clashing personalities of the two great men, both equal in intelligence, but very different in mannerisms and image. Winner of the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physics for his unique classification of elementary particles into his meson and baryon groups, for which he called his "Eight fold ways", Murray Gell-Mann led to development of the quark model using his concept of "strangeness" and isospin in the the Gell-Mann--Nishijima formula which was proven correct with the discovery of the Omega Minus baryon, which contained 3 strange quarks in his model. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDkaMuN0DA0 The quark model allowed for the appearance of particles with the same spin in the same quantum state, as long as they have different "color charge" which led to development of Quantum Chromodynamics, using the Dirac Lagrangian for SU(3) fields, represented by the Gell-Mann Matrices, QCD describes nonabelian vector fields which would later describe the color confinement and asymptotic feedom of QCD. This is similar to Feynman's use of the Dirac Lagrangian applied to SU(2) fields represented by the Dirac Matrices which describe abelian scalar fields and contain the electron propogator, mass and interaction terms which are invarient under gauge transformation when a field is introduced that transforms like an electromagnetic field, hence creating the photon propogator. Feynman's diagrams stem from these terms, and these apply for Quantum Chromodynamics as they do for Quantum electrodynamics, except requiring gluons instead of photons. Richard Feynman shared the 1965 Nobel prize in Physics for his work on QED with Julian Schwinger and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, which triggered the modern view of particle physics: The Standard Model of Particle Physics. The inclusion of Gell-Mann's work into the Standard Model would define particle physics up untill the present day, the QCD Lagrangian describes the essential features of quark confinement which result in the Strong Force induced jets of mesons and baryons from quark-antiquark pair production seen in particle accelerators.
Views: 147342 Muon Ray
Michio Kaku Warning on the Decline of Science in America and Western Civilization
 
04:14
Michio Kaku, while remembering a conversation he had with the famous physicist Freeman Dyson, comments on how Dyson noticed that America, in the 21st century, is in a state of scientific decline in the same fashion to how Britain declined in the early 20th century, whereby it no longer was the global scientific, industrial and economic power, as reflected in the number of discoveries, inventions and Nobel Prizes won by British scientists in the 1800s and early 1900s and instead declined to a kind of "junior partner" to the much more scientifically dominant United States from the 1940's to 1990's. However, since most funding in America was connected to the Pentagon, who had an abundance of funding during the cold war to build atom smashers, spacecraft projects, electronics, laser research, computer and high speed communications technology (such as the ARPANET and eventually the Internet) this generated a very unsustainable way to generate a constantly replenishing high tech economy. Hence when the cold war ended many science, maths and engineering graduates had to fund their own education with grants becoming more and more sparse and therefore became very dependent on financial institutions for loans. The best way to pay off these loans was to enter the financial workforce itself and all too often these are only jobs science, engineering and math graduates can get in the western world. Such jobs do not create wealth as much as they do redistribute it, with most of the work being in the field of credit default swaps, investment risk analysis or trend prediction. Michio also reminds us that in the meantime, China and India are becoming more and more developed and see science and engineering as a meal ticket into the growing high tech economy which may easily outperform America in the not too distant future, reducing it to a "junior partner" or service sector as Britain was to America in the 1930's and through much of the late 20th century. As a result, the entire western world could become a "junior partner" to science and industry, to a dominant Asian science and industrial power, with America and Europe essentially becoming a global trade and service area with minimal industry and technological innovation. Such predictions are worth thinking about in considering how the debate of distributing wealth for short term gains is debated in the United States, often in a "robbing Peter to pay Paul" type of fashion which is very short sighted given that lack of funding for science now may result in a country being a scientific backwater 20 years from now, unable to catch up with competitors and even nations which were once behind and creating an economy and workforce that is very skewed towards the service sector, creating huge unemployment in the skilled workforce which only leads to brain-drain and decline.
Views: 30284 Muon Ray
James Randi - Secrets of the Psychics Documentary (Full)
 
54:18
See 2 hours of Randi here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qpeN3DVwk4Q James "The Amazing" Randi is the perfect mix of Science and Magic, a true conjurer of visual machinations that can fool our senses while, at the same time, explaining to us how our senses are fooled. In my opinion this is the best example of a "human mind debugger", he gets right into the machinations of analog tricks and sees how our brains mistakenly manifests them as a possible reality. Randi also teaches us that illusion and trickery may be comforting to the human mind, but truth is far much more wonderful as it shows us the machinations from the chaos, the sense as well as the awe in both the tricks and the real world. For several decades, Randi has gone on to expose hundreds of psychics and teach millions across the globe about how they could be fooled into believing in a system which could potentially make them vulnerable to trickery and perhaps psychical harm. Randi is not afraid to go against popular opinion, as shown in his battle against so-called psychic Uri Geller in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Randi has also gone against the bizarre practice of faith "healing" and contacting the deceased, and has exposed the cruel, callous and cynical nature of the people who claim to be performing "God's will", such as Peter Popoff. Randi has also warned us time and time again about the fraudulent practice that is homeopathic medicine and how it is essentially water solution, dished out as hocus-pocus medicine. James Randi is the founder of The James Randi Educational Foundation, an organisation that attempts to bring reason to world by luring potential psychics into a trap, baited by a million dollar prize to prove their psychic "powers". "powers" here is a kind of vague term,as Randi knows, so the tests are usually on the so-called psychic's terms. No self-acclaimed psychic has ever won the prize. Whether or not some form of psychic power exists is still an open question, however many psychics often do not properly gauge their so-called skills and instead brag about them, hence scepticism about such claims should not be so strange to their ears. Unfortunately the vast amount of psychic powers they have seem to remove all self-esteem as many psychics are often uneasy about Randi's reasonable request and attractive million dollar reward.
Views: 2381718 Muon Ray
Topological Quantum Computer - Professor John Preskill, Caltech
 
07:03
Part of an excellent lecture given by Professor John Preskill at Caltech where he describes the potential use of topologically protected states in quantum computing. 'Standard' qubits have been implemented in diverse physical systems, Now, topological qubits can be created using a pair of Majorana fermions and could potentially be used for decoherence-free quantum computing. Majorana Fermions are quasiparticles, theoretically predicted to form as excitations in superconductors. Majorana Fermions are their own antiparticles, this becomes possible because the superconductor imposes electron hole symmetry on the quasiparticle excitations. This creates a symmetry which is similar to the concept of the Dirac Fermion except that the quantum states for creation and annihilation are identical under the same order exchange operations. Majorana fermion bound states at zero energy are therefore an example of non-abelian anyons: interchanging them changes the state of the system in a way which depends only on the order in which exchange was performed. The non-abelian statistics that Majorana bound states possess allows to use them as a building block for a topological quantum computer. Within the last year, a research team from the Kavli Institute of Nanoscience at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands reported an experiment involving indium antimonide superconducting nanowires connected to a circuit with a gold contact at one end and a slice of superconductor at the other. When exposed to a moderately strong magnetic field the apparatus showed a peak electrical conductance at zero voltage that is consistent with the formation of a pair of Majorana bound states, one at either end of the region of the nanowire in contact with the superconductor.
Views: 19665 Muon Ray
Single Atom Quantum Computing in Silicon
 
04:24
Using existing Silicon fabrication facilities, it is possible to dope a high purity silicon chip with a single phosphorus donor atom and manipulate the atom using a varying magnetic field to manipulate the quantum spin state of the atom to form a quantum bit or qubit. The nucleus of the phosphorus atom can store a single qubit for long periods of time in the way it spins. A magnetic field could easily address this qubit using well-known techniques from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This allows single-qubit manipulations but not two-qubit operations, because nuclear spins do not interact significantly of each other. For that, we must transfer the spin quantum number of the nucleus to an electron orbiting the phosphorus atom, which would interact much more easily with an electron orbiting a nearby phosphorus atom. Two-qubit operations would then be possible by manipulating the two electrons with high frequency AC electric fields. The big advantage of this type of quantum computer, sometimes called the Kane quantum computer after physicist Bruce Kane who suggested the device back in the late 1990's, is that it is scalable. Since each atom could be addressed individually using standard electronic circuitry, it is straightforward to increase the size of the computer by adding more atoms and their associated electronics and then to connect it to a conventional computer. The disadvantages of course is that the atoms must be placed at precise locations in the Silicon, using a scanning tunneling microscope. The manipulation of the phosphorus atom spin itself is also problematic as this requires powerful magnetic fields which reduces scalability. But the big unsolved challenge has been to find a way to address the spin of an individual electron orbiting a phosphorus atom and to read out its value. To do this requires scientists to implant a single phosphorus atom in a silicon nanostructure and place it in a powerful magnetic field at a temperature close to absolute zero, cooling the chip using liquid helium. This makes it possible to flip the state of an electron orbiting the phosphorus atom by irradiating it with microwaves. The final step, a significant challenge in itself, is to read out the state of the electron using a process known as spin-to-charge conversion. The end result is a device that can store and manipulate a qubit and has the potential to perform two-qubit logic operations with atoms nearby; in other words the fundamental building block of a scalable quantum computer. However, some stiff competition has emerged in the 15 years since Kane published his original design. In particular, physicists have found a straightforward way to store and process quantum information in nitrogen vacancy defects in diamond, which offer the best possibility to make a functional quantum computer as this structure can produced quantum gate operations that can work at room temperature. Then there is D-Wave Systems, which already manufactures a scalable quantum computer working in an entirely different way that it has famously sold to companies such as Lockheed Martin and Google. The big advantage of the Australian design is its compatibility with the existing silicon-based chip-making industry. In theory, it will be straightforward to incorporate this technology into future chips. Currently, the Australian Kane quantum computer has the highest performance capabilities of any solid state qubit. Due to the ease of reproducing the diamond NV- centers, their ease of operation without using liquid helium to cool the chip as well as their speed using optics and electronics it seems that diamond based quantum computers are providing the biggest competition to the Kane quantum computer in the race to develop a functioning, gate quantum computer. Ref: arxiv.org/abs/1305.4481: A single-Atom Electron Spin Qubit in Silicon
Views: 17033 Muon Ray
A Brief History of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2
 
14:52
The Voyager 1 spacecraft, after a 36-year journey, has been announced by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory to have officially left the solar system and has become the first human-made object to reach interstellar space. Here is a brief history of the Voyager program, from its launch, exploration of the outer solar system and its exodus into interstellar space and how scientists at NASA were able to use Voyager 1 and 2 to discover enormous knowledge about the solar system and beyond. The fact that these spacecraft are still functioning after 35 years is a testament to the skill and ingenuity of the engineers and scientists who worked on the program.
Views: 249546 Muon Ray
Quantum Entanglement Documentary - Atomic Physics and Reality
 
40:15
Want to learn more about quantum entanglement? Check out http://muonray.blogspot.ie/2014/09/overview-of-quantum-entanglement.html Want to learn, even more, on Quantum Entanglement, Black Holes and the Holographic Principle? Check out https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HIJ44AtCCi8&feature=autoshare Here's more about Quantum Entanglement Applied to Game Theory - http://muonray.blogspot.ie/2015/11/spooky-quantum-strategies-in-game-theory.html A historical account from 1985 of the long standing debate between Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein regarding the validity of the quantum mechanical description of atomic phenomena and observation of quantum states with respect to the uncertainty principle and quantum entanglement . Starring some famous physicists, John Archibald Wheeler, John Stewart Bell, Alain Aspect, David Bohm and others. Interesting stuff. © 1985 Jorlunde Film Denmark with sound editing (due to original file corruption) by Muon Ray Enterprises
Views: 837434 Muon Ray
Michio Kaku - Top Secret Military War Plans
 
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For full article: http://muonray.blogspot.ie/2012/12/michio-kaku-for-president.html Professor Michio Kaku discusses the secret military projects that the United States had planned during the 1950's, such as US President Eisenhower's OPLAN 852 to drop the atomic bomb on North Korea and President Nixon's Operation Duck Hook (code-named "Pruning Knife" by the military) in the Atomic Anex which had plans to use Thermonuclear weapons on the the China-Korean Border to end the Vietnam War. In 2005 Michio Kaku was invited to a world peace conference in San Pedro with US congressman Dennis Kucinich, who would go on to run in the 2008 election, and brought up some very insightful and interesting points, some of which may have been a premonition to the global economic crisis and the global military agenda. Just as Eisenhower assumed that "Atomic Bombs are Like Bullets" we are now being fed the illusion that "Wars are like Bullets" and that we should just tolerate warfare as the only solution to anything. War on Poverty, War on Healthcare, War on Everything. The global spending on weapons and military programs outweigh all programs that combat healthcare and poverty combined. The world we live in is on the brink of failure from a gregarious, domination driven, series of world powers. These are not hidden Cabals or secret societies, these are not communities hiding in the shadows of society: these are the plain sight actions of entire nations. The United States, North Korea, Russia, China, The United Kingdom and European Union are all engaging in gregarious social military operations that impoverish our culture and are keeping people on the brink of starvation and abject poverty. Moreover, more people are being slaughtered themselves in ever more frequent acts of mass violence, which have been increasing in frequency every year; a clear probe into the self-destruction of social bonds in modern culture and a premonition to the potential destruction of our civilization into an eventual state of barbarism. The economic situation, constantly being advertised as unstable, is causing bickering which will inevitably lead to high levels of warfare, fuelled by a greed that is never sated. Systematic destruction of the Earth's ecosystems and environment is also carried out by the global superpowers, causing continuous destruction from an unstable climate which they have inadvertently created and yet deny they have done so, leaving the blame in limbo and the consequences to a population of vulnerable people who have been told that city destroying tornadoes and flooding are normal and that they should just be good and suffer it rather than upset the apple cart. The political elite are so utterly dependant on their systems of economic, political, religious and social control that they will fight against the people to do so. Modern warfare does not fear nuclear weapons, the cold war is over. There are no "Superpowers". The Nations realise that the greatest destructive force to the traditional way of keeping people in line are the people themselves. As Dr. Kaku rightfully says: "The will of the people is more powerful than the hydrogen bomb". Governments know this and, as a result, frequently declare war on the people to keep them in line. Conservative Politicians, in both the US and European Union, are attempting to create "New Rome", an unstoppable global empire which will rule the earth using military overreach until our rights are devoured. That is why television has become insipidly stupid and trivialised, that is why media sharing websites are placated with advertisements and that is why we are constantly reminded that any for of work in today's economy (no matter how menial) is a virtue. The best way "Old Rome" could control the people was trough the Gladiator Games and nationalistic fervour that saw violence as good and criminals as demigods. Government's have plenty of money, and dish it out to keep the people happy enough to be allowed to work for the global domination driven elite and dumb enough to think that it is a gift given to them by their superiors. Warfare has changed from being between nations to being between the rich and the poor. The Global Economic Crisis of 2008 can be traced, piece by piece, by a combination of warfare funded by the United States and European Union against the Islamic Civilization and a form of warfare aimed at their own citizens which has resulted in a so-called "recession" which government's in The West want to make permanent. We are in the 3rd stage of empire: Military Overreach and Economic and Social Collapse. This is the Empire of the Rich versus the Democracy of the Public. We the people must end this self-destructive madness and create an era of awakening so that we can turn our swords into plowshares and begin to have a future as a global community.
Views: 320227 Muon Ray
Quantum Computation possible with Majorana Fermions
 
03:25
Using indium antimonide nanowires it may be possible to create a pair of Majorana fermions that form the basis of the topological qubit. 'Standard' qubits have been implemented in diverse physical systems. Now, so-called topological qubits could potentially be used for decoherence-free quantum computing. Majorana Fermions are quasiparticles, theoretically predicted to form as excitations in superconductors. Majorana Fermions are their own antiparticles, this becomes possible because the superconductor imposes electron hole symmetry on the quasiparticle excitations. This creates a symmetry which is similar to the concept of the Dirac Fermion except that the quantum states for creation and annihilation are identical under the same order exchange operations. Majorana fermion bound states at zero energy are therefore an example of non-abelian anyons: interchanging them changes the state of the system in a way which depends only on the order in which exchange was performed. The non-abelian statistics that Majorana bound states possess allows to use them as a building block for a topological quantum computer. The team from the Kavli Institute of Nanoscience at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands reported an experiment involving indium antimonide nanowires connected to a circuit with a gold contact at one end and a slice of superconductor at the other. When exposed to a moderately strong magnetic field the apparatus showed a peak electrical conductance at zero voltage that is consistent with the formation of a pair of Majorana bound states, one at either end of the region of the nanowire in contact with the superconductor.
Views: 29131 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman Lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics: QED. 1/8
 
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Part 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rKjpk3dkIZI Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum electrodynamcis, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. one of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is was an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the Path Integral formulation of Relativistic Quantum mechanics, used in Quantum Field Theory, interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in Liquid Helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter, e.g volume. he also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water- his high intelligence and independant way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, Commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety proceedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration.
Views: 138195 Muon Ray
Noam Chomsky on Climate Change, Nuclear War and Future of Civilization
 
04:52
World renowned Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professor Noam Chomsky discusses the 2 greatest threats to human civilization and current level of habitability of the planet, namely Nuclear War and Environmental Catastrophe. In the context of how systems of power operate, Noam Chomsky discusses how from the perspective of an external observer, such as an Extraterrestrial visitor, watching our escalation of these threats and our lack of action concerning them, might very well have led to the conclusion that we are about to destroy our civilization. Noam Chomsky recalls how, in a different context, we have had this discussion before, namely as a scientific one in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, SETI. Debating this from the point of view of Astrophysics was the famous scientist Carl Sagan. Due to the abundance of the chemicals of life, the number of sun-like stars in the galaxy and the vastness of the universe, Sagan argued that not only life must be common but intelligent life must be reasonably prosperous in several instances across the universe. Ernst Mayr however did not share share Carl Sagan's optimism at finding intelligent life elsewhere and, by his study of the evolution of life on earth, which changes in part to variation but also due to near-extinction events and population bottlenecks, he concluded that out of the billions of species that have ever existed the most successful species are the ones that mutate very quickly, like bacteria and viruses, or ones which occupy a fixed ecological niche such as insects like beetles. Mayr also went on to comment on how species with higher intelligence are often fewer in number than lower forms and that in the case of mankind our level of intelligence yields great success, such as the large population growth of mankind since the industrial revolution, but not in any way that could be seen as evolutionary significant as our DNA has not changed substantially in 100,000 years. Moreover, our destructive nature, which also escalates with our intelligence, creates new dangers some of which may very well outweigh our developments, with global warming and nuclear war being threats which could very well reduce the population of humanity as their dangers escalate. Noam Chomsky uses these arguments very well in the context of how we are ignoring these threats and how, perhaps,we should start acting like the independent alien observer in order to give us higher ground and foresight into what is really threatening us and how we can formulate plans which can negate such threats without sinking into the short term thinking which the limited lifespan of humans is vulnerable to.
Views: 7319 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman Bongo Drums "Orange Juice"
 
01:50
Richard Feynman. Physicist, Artist and Bongo Drum Player. Here, after a lecture, he plays his signature "Orange Juice" theme with his friend and fellow drum player, Ralph Leighton. Richard Feynman, Along with Julian Schwinger and Shin-Itiro Tomonaga, was the reciever of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on Quantum Electrodynamics for which Feynman took the theories surrounding the logarithms and integrals developed by Schwinger and Feynman himself, with the help of noted physicist Hans Bethe, and developed them into simple path integrals in a formalism that bears his name. Feynman's Path Integral Formalism borrows on the Hamilton's Principle for Least Action and assigns probability amplitudes which are proportional to the exponent of the action S. action being the integral of the Lagrangian. This means that the Dirac Lagrangian, when modified for Gauge Invariance, can give the entire dynamics from the system and, among other things, allows you to construct those famous Feynman Diagrams which looked so good he put them on his van! Feynman's sum over histories is also an interesting side-effect of the Path Integral Formalism as it explains how interference pattens form due to vector potential the electron "sees". The use of Feynman's rules was also the foundation for the Renormalisation Group work done by Feynman but also tackled more rigorously by Freeman Dyson and Murray Gell-Mann. Feynman had a huge influence on physics in the latter part of the 20th century and helped popularise his view of the world and encourage us to, as Leonard Susskind aptly put it, "To take as much baloney out of our sandwiches as possible."
Views: 58542 Muon Ray
Dr. Carl Sagan CNN Interview with Ted Turner
 
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In this classic interview from 1989, Dr. Carl Sagan, possibly the greatest populariser of fundamental science in modern history, has a conversation with CNN founder and environmental philanthropist Ted Turner. Ted Turner, like many others, acknowledged Carl Sagan's message about the importance of scientific reason about difficult matters such as environmental destruction and the threat of nuclear war early on and is responsible, in part, in drawing attention to the issue of environmental destruction to the masses. Turner undoubtedly monopolised the cable television sector making CNN one of the most powerful forms of mass media on earth. Fully aware that his financial gain was the direct result of the high technology of the time, Turner had responsibility to interview one of the leading scientists in the public sphere back then. Carl Sagan realised that part of the problem of nuclear war and global warming was the lack of understanding that the damage they can cause are both non-mutually exclusive to the countries that are responsible and the countries which are not responsible. In other words, greenhouse gases and radioactive smoke and dust do not recognise borders between countries, CO2 and radiation do not carry passports. Carl Sagan's work in the consequences of nuclear winter, which he derived mainly by Mie Scattering calculations of dust molecules in Martian dust storms, predicted to happen under certain conditions following a nuclear war was a key part in the development of the theory of Nuclear Winter which is one of the leading arguments against the perceived stability in the policy of Mutually Assured Destruction (M.A.D). Other scenarios, such as atmospheric irradiation, which would permanently destroy the Ozonosphere, and long term radioactive fallout are probably more likely, and more disastrous, scenarios making Carl's predictions somewhat optimistic. Moreover, human made climate change induced by CO2 and Methane emissions by intense industrial society has been predicted, using computer modelling at MIT and Caltech and others, showing a runaway global warming effect if Arctic and Antarctic permafrost is melted which would release huge amounts of trapped methane into the atmosphere warming the earth by perhaps 5 degrees or more at the equator, up to 12 degrees at the poles which would cause sea and ocean levels everywhere to rise as well as shifting of ocean and air currents causing unpredictable and much more energetic weather formations. Continuous Ozone depletion and water acidification and contamination are also serious issues as is the issue of fresh water shortage, which will tally the consequences of climate change to everyday human life. Carl Sagan shows us that our technological progress, unregulated, gives humanity the power to do utter devastation to the environment and to the human species itself. logically regulated however, Carl has taught us that the proper use of technology and the proper action to scientific knowledge can also do great good to the soften the impact of a technical civilization on the environment and towards helping the human community on a global scale. We should start taking Carl Sagan's and many others' example of thinking of the border divides between countries as imaginary to avoid global catastrophe by the threats of warfare by weapons of mass destruction and by global warming and environmental destruction. The silver lining of such actions would be, as Carl Sagan observes, the driving force that unites the human species to become a planetary civilization. Other Issues such as global poverty and the importance of science and mathematics education, fundamental science research and exploration are discussed and some more esoteric topics are discussed as well such as life on other planets, the philosophical implications of future technologies, the existence/non-existence of God(s) and the possible future of the human species.
Views: 208541 Muon Ray
String Theory - Lawrence Krauss and Brian Greene
 
57:00
Professors Lawrence Krauss and Brian Greene discuss Brian Greene's introduction into the field of String Theory and the educational reasons to how he came to study and popularise the subject with physics in general. Theoretical Physics requires tailor made mathematics to describe the mechanism of reality as probed and observed by Experimental and Observational Physicists. Modern physicists stand on the shoulders of previous giants in science who, through the marriage of theory and experiment, discovered how nature works and how nature can be used in technology. Gravity was discovered and explained by Isaac Newton through his invention of classical mechanics and fundamental calculus. James Clerk Maxwell formulated Faraday's, Gauss' and Ampere's Laws into his theory of Electromagnetism. Einstein used the evidence from the Michelson-Morley Experiment and his own thought experiments on simultaneity as his central axioms in Special Relativity. Einstein then developed the famous mass-energy equivalence and concept of space-time, essential concepts for high energy physics. Einstein extended Relativity to General Relativity, describing accelerating bodies and used the relationship between energy and space-time to describe curvature in the form of his field equations, discovering the true nature of the gravitational field which had troubled Newton and his predecessors for centuries. Theodore Kaluza extended General Relativity with the concept of Maxwell's Theory of electromagnetism and, along with Oscar Klein, developed the Kaluza-Klein Theory, a theory which describes electromagnetism as a gauge theory where the gauge symmetry is the symmetry of circular compact dimensions. This all lead to the development of modern string theory, which views the Standard Model, the guidebook of elementary physics, as gauge groups existing on a flat spacetime; with the elementary particles as strings on a flat world sheet, vibrating with different couplings and flavours forming the different particles. The higher dimensions are in a curved spacetime in this theory, containing particles beyond the Standard Model as being higher resonances of the strings, contained on a different world sheet, or brane. The Standard Model is an extended patchwork of mathematics that describes 3 of the 4 fundamental forces. The work of Richard Feynman, who developed the path integral formalism for quantum mechanics used this to develop Quantum Electrodynamics, QED. QED was the first theory to describe relativistic quantum mechanics and the beginning of the Standard Model's framework. Soon, the Weak Interaction was developed using quantum field theory, however the theory was too chaotic to make predictions as the coupling constants were impossible to determine at low energies; unlike QED the Weak Interaction is Non-Abelian and uses vector Bosons to commute. Predictions can be made from the dynamics only if you combine the theory with QED itself, which leads to symmetry breaking which is mediated by massless bosons. The mass for these bosons has to come from an outside field, the famous Higgs field which operates via The Higgs Boson. The work of Murray Gell-Mann produced Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD a theory describing the strong nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons (nucleons) together and describes how the fundamental particles inside them, the quarks and gluons, interact with each other in high energy interactions. Feynman's path integral method can also be used to extend Kaluza-Kelin theory to Yang-Mills theory to describe how Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD, works in the low energy regime, as running of the coupling constants for this theory becomes chaotic, like the weak interaction, at even low energies. The question that remains: is there symmetry breaking of these gauge theories at a universal level, where all coupling constants are the same and if so why do they trend towards infinity? Is their some mass gap that must be included to achieve this? Where does gravity fit into the Standard Model? How can we renormalise the Standard Model itself? And with what? A lot of these questions have to be answered by the extensions of the Kaluza Klein model into the different interpretations of String Theory, which are all equivalent to M-Theory, which attempts to unify a lot of the different string theories to from a Unified Field Theory. Want to learn more about string theory and higher dimensional physics? Check out Lisa Randall's Lecture Series: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKejAW0IaDA
Views: 290220 Muon Ray
James Randi on Peter Popoff's Faith Healing Scam
 
07:16
In the 1980's, James "The Amazing" Randi exposed Peter Popoff on Johnny Carson's Tonight Show. Popoff was exposed by James Randi and others as a con prophet who profits by fabricating an air of the miraculous about himself, using seemingly private information about people in his congregation to lull the sick into believing that God can heal them miraculously through Popoff, for a fee of course. Popoff did this using technological means, using a hearing aid and radio transmitter which was picked up by radio scanners and recorded showing that he was being prompted by his wife with information from prayer cards filled out by the congregation before his live performance. Such information asked to be filled on the cards was private to individuals. This included afflictions they wanted healed, family members (particularly if deceased) and where they lived. Most people would have assumed or have been lead to believe the information they filled out on the cards was not disclosed to Popoff directly, however Popoff was informed of it live as he mingled with the crowd by his wife who was watching him from some vantage point. In this, Popoff was performing a hot reading, in that he was being fed the information directly. However the people he was manipulating would have thought the private information he knew instantly was being fed to him by divine means making his somewhat outrageous healing performances seem credible to people who seemed to be in a state of euphoria after witnessing such an event. Popoff seems to use his crude acting abilities to make his exaggerated claims and false promises seem credible. After he was exposed for his faith healing scam Popoff went bankrupt, albeit briefly. In the late 1990's Popoff seemed to return to faith healing and was doing better than ever; his exposure on Johnny Carson's Tonight Show mysteriously forgotten. In the late 2000's and at present, due to a change in the global economy, he drifted away from his faith healing crusades and focused on helping people financially using his "divine powers". Popoff now routinely sells restaurant condiment packets of salt as "holy salt from The Dead Sea" along with small baggies of "holy/blessed water" which can apparently "bless you with riches" if you eat the salt and drink the water and ritualistically give Popoff money checks. What is even more remarkable is that this obvious scam is fooling people in significant numbers in America and as a result Popoff is now a multi-millionaire. Surely this is one of the strangest and surprisingly successful con jobs in recent history. At 0:20 we can see a child looking genuinely puzzled at Popoff's act; incidentally being puzzled is one of the most important trait in scientific analysis and exposing the untruths in existing doctrine. It is amazing how easily children can see through the bullshit sometimes. While most of the adults and old timers in the audience of churches and healers seem to have glazed eyes devoid of critical analysis the children are always staring at the wild gesticulations and are clearly uneasy with the whole rationale of sitting there and accepting things without reciprocated interaction. The school system does not help things by beating in the idea that a person sitting at a pulpit, dictating commands in a non-reciprocating manner should have unquestioned authority. Children are being let down across the board by this ultimate form of stupidity and blatant indoctrination.
Views: 42014 Muon Ray
The Big Bang - Lawrence Krauss and Michio Kaku
 
50:28
Professor Lawrence Krauss and Professor Michio Kaku explain the physics behind the events in the first second of The Big Bang, events which range from the first fractions of a second after creation: The Plank Era; The field symmetry breaking; formation of elementary particles; Matter-antimatter annihilation (explained by Dr. Tara Shears); Formation of atoms and the last scattering of photons which make up the Cosmic Microwave Background (Explained by Dr. David N. Spergel) to the billions of years of stellar evolution: the formation of stars and Galaxies which developed the visible universe as seen today. Using High Energy Particle Accelerators and Observational and Theoretical Astrophysics, scientists are able to recreate the first few fractions of a second after the Big Bang, to the point of symmetry breaking, and in conjunction by using space and earth-based observatories observe the remnants of the Big Bang itself using powerful analysis of the CMB by the WMAP and Planck Spacecraft combined with the modelling of the large scale structure of the universe as done by The Sloan Digital Sky Survey.. The Initial Conditions of the Universe are still a mystery and debate has gone on recently to whether or not there were even any initial conditions at all, maybe the universe can form from no initial conditions in standard space-time and that the very fabric of space, curled up in perhaps infinite dimensions creates an infinite set of paths for scalar fields to branch off of and interfere to create the flow of energy from the initial big bang. Such a theory is predicted by M-Theory, which gives the Multiverse picture of curved Space-Time in 11 Dimensions which, through quantum mechanics, create many scalar fields that couple at different strengths in each universe creating a different set of physical laws in each universe. Not all universes could be suitable for life, each universe seems to have the Planck Constant encoded into it, as it is the Uncertainty Principle and the Sum over Histories that lead to the Multiverse picture in the first place, however the coupling strengths of gravity and electromagnetism are completely arbitrary in this view. In some of these Universes, Electromagnetism could be very strongly coupled in certain schemes meaning that basic chemistry would not arise in some universes. In other Universes the Strong Nuclear force may be too weak to give sufficient binding energy to atomic nuclei, making fusion impossible. In other Universes, Gravity may be coupled far more strongly, creating a Universe of Galaxy Cluster-sized black holes. Other Universes still may be composed of nothing but vacuum energy. Hence we must be living in a Universe suitable for life as we are here observing it, that is the nature of The Anthropic Principle which is used to answer the question, "why is the universe the way it is?" However, the true meaning of the answer comes from Theoretical Physics and M-Theory: The Universe need not be suitable for life, our one just happens to be.
Views: 701006 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman - Problem Solving
 
14:24
Richard Feynman was one of the greatest problem solvers of the 20th century and loved being puzzled and solving puzzles, a quality that made him a legendary physicist. To be good at science is to be good at being puzzled and seeing puzzles in everyday phenomena that are taken for granted, allowing you to see what is right in front of you in a new and exciting point of view. This allows for huge developments and innovations that are completely different from anything before. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is was an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the Path Integral formulation of Relativistic Quantum mechanics, used in Quantum Field Theory, interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in Liquid Helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. During the Manhatten Project, Richard Feynman performed theoretical calculations on the first nuclear weapons developed during the Manhatten project with his supervisor Hans Bethe. They extended Serber's original formula for the yield of a nuclear weapon and developed the Bethe-Feynman formula, which is still classified by the US government even today. Other fields of work include the Wheeler-Feynman Absorber Theory for Electromagnetic Radiation, developed with his colleague John A. Wheeler, which was the first attempt to create a theory of electromagnetism that obeys time-reversal theory. He also developed the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can be formulated from his own Path Intregral interpretation and relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian with respect to a single parameter, e.g volume. This theory makes possible the calculation of the intramolecular forces of individual molecule in terms of the electronic density (ρ(r)) and the atomic coordinates and nuclear charges of the individual atoms. This, simulated on computers, allows dynamical molecular and quantum systems to be simulated on powerful computers. Such technology is only beginning to have applications in the fields of simulating how proteins fold, how to design drugs that act specifically on biochemical processes and how to simulate quantum logic and computation, something Feynman had predicted long before before the first atomic traps were invented. Feynman was also a huge visionary in the fields of nanotechnology and small scale manufacturing, something which has led to the modern age and continues to accelerate to new developments in human civilization today.
Views: 485546 Muon Ray
Edward Teller on The Trinity Nuclear Bomb Test.
 
02:05
Edward Teller, Nuclear Physicist and the father of the Hydrogen Bomb, tells us about his witness of the Trinity test, the first detonation of a nuclear device in human history. The Trinity Test was carried out on July 16th 1945 and used a bomb, named "The Gadget" , which used a plutonium based implosion mechanism, the same as "Fat Man" which was dropped over Nagasaki less than a month later, August 9th 1945. The Trinity Test was carried out in what is now known as White Sands Missile range in New Mexico, the largest military complex in the United States. The Gadget had the same blast yield as Fat Man, hence Edward Teller was one of the few people on the Earth who new, prior to the bombings of Japan, the power that would be unleashed.
Views: 16773 Muon Ray
Neil deGrasse Tyson - UFOs, Aliens and Brain Failures
 
07:30
Neil deGrasse Tyson talks about how human sensory perception is vulnerable to false readings and is inadequate for scientific measuring. The vulnerability is exposed particularly when observing something which seems exotic or strange only because the event was measured with a low cross section, i.e. a single eyewitness account. This is the equivalent of a camera with only one pixel, a larger spread of information is required to gain a full image of an object. Moreover for the image to be real it must have information gathered from individual pixels that create a shape which is not contradictory to the object being viewed; a shape which is circular should not have an image that is one half circular and the other half square. If it was then we know the information gathering apparatus is faulty. Similarly independently gathered evidence of a claim should not be contradictory, if it was then the search was done incorrectly. By this analogy, a single claim that focuses on a trial that records the hits and ignores the misses, is like having a single camera pixel that only gives out a 1 but not a zero; literally giving a whitewash, nondescript image. Also, we see all the time how our sensory perception is skewed when we look at optical illusions or are under hypnosis therefore, without a control, eyewitness testimony is itself inadequate as scientific evidence because it is not quantified to ignore the possibility of illusion or a skewed reading. In this sense the concept of a systems failure is ignored in our information gathering exercise. Unless we have a considerable measure of all possible background effects to account for the sources of interference and then have a large reading of a possible event then there is little point in getting worked up over a claim of a UFO/ghost/bigfoot/alien sighting. Unless the background effects which could also attribute to seeing these events are taken into account we cannot say for certain what happened. In science the observational misses, the interference or the background should be quantified exactly as much as the hits. Unfortunately cameras themselves do not do this; cameras must be designed and programmed to eliminate the background noise. The fact that our own senses have blindspots that do not always eliminate the background noise shows us that method and reason in science and discovery is far more important than blind chance and intuition as humans are, as Neil deGrasse Tyson states, poor data-collecting devices.
Views: 9438 Muon Ray
Alien Planet Kepler 186f - A Cousin of Earth
 
04:23
Where is Everybody? - Article on the Fermi Paradox and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life: http://muonray.blogspot.ie/2015/05/where-is-everybody-fermi-paradox-and.html 490 light years away lies Kepler-186f, a rocky world orbiting a red-dwarf star which is the first definitive Earth-sized planet found in the habitable zone around its parent star, the temperature at which water is at its liquid phase and organic life becomes a possibility. The announcement of the new Kepler team discovery was in a new report by Dr Elisa Quintana, Thomas Barclay (both interviewed in this video), Jason Rowe and others of the SETI Institute at Nasa's Ames Research Centre, whom you can see more of here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UogSOfkoib4 The Kepler exoplanet-hunting telescope run by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration discovered the new planet, one of five in orbit around the red dwarf star Kepler-186. All of the others 186(b-e) are closer to their red sun 186a and are outside the habitable zone Planet 186f has a radius that is 1.1 times the radius of Earth. About 70 per cent of all the galaxy's suns are red dwarfs, and these are weaker than our own star in terms of solar power output. Rocky planets bigger than Earth have more gravity and pull in lots of hydrogen and helium gases that turn them into gassy planets, like Neptune or Jupiter like planets which are common throughout the many solar systems observed across the galaxy. Smaller rocky planets acquire their atmospheres when gases such as carbon dioxide and water vapour are released by volcanoes. In the rare case when such a rocky planet is within the habitable zone, when water forms then it should remain liquid and would flow across the surface, mixing molecules and acting like the great solvent we know and love thereby giving organic chemistry a chance to thrive. Given the long life of red-dwarf stars, which burn their nuclear fuel much more slowly than larger stars such as our sun and the giant white and blue stars in our galaxy, gives habitable planets in these systems plenty of time to generate complex life if conditions allow it. However, even though this planet is in the habitable zone it may not be anything like habitable for humans or even very resilient earth life. Red dwarf stars are often vulnerable to frequent solar flares, without a strong magnetic field to deflect high energy charged particles, the planet would be constantly bombarded with high levels of particle radiation. This would damage some of the very fragile molecules of life, including DNA. Nevertheless for life to thrive it must evolve, to evolve it must mutate. Some mutations are generated by random high energy particle collisions from the solar wind and cosmic rays. Hence, having a sun prone to flares may help trigger evolution on such a world, perhaps starting it billions of years before its discovery and having let it develop into a myriad of forms.
Views: 391587 Muon Ray
Gore Vidal on the Totalitarian Surveillance Police State
 
01:16
In this brief clip, from 2007, the world renowned man of letters Gore Vidal talks about how Habeas Corpus (and by extension Magna Carta) has been totally eliminated by the Patriot Act and similar acts worldwide creating the current surveillance system which the public is subject too. In this system, to be proven "not guilty" of a crime, it is no longer the case to have due process of law, as the habeas corpus dictates, rather you must show that you have "nothing to hide" from the gargantuan global surveillance networks that harvest metadata on every aspect of life on and off the internet for anyone connected to the digital culture, which is a minimum of 2 Billion people worldwide. Gore Vidal also mentions how a clever use of public relations and advertising has convinced people that this type of governance is necessary, by which most of the electorate are exposed to leaders which are made appear as mere figure heads, bought and sold in the same fashion as consumer goods, to powerful interests and that we should merely spectate politics instead of participating in it. Gore Vidal passed away in 2012, at age 86. His knowledge of american political history and his essayist way of turning discussion into a quote-filled speech which lives on in resonance with any audience, along with plenty of wit and funny ridicule along the way, makes his historical and political views highly memorable, bringing a new found love of modern history back into many minds.
Views: 3111 Muon Ray
Aneutronic Nuclear Fusion Reactor + Engine Proposal
 
03:04
Want to learn more about Aneutronic Fusion?: http://muonray.blogspot.ie/2014/12/aneutronic-nuclear-fusion-truly-clean.html Could we mine the Moon for Aneutronic Fusion Fuel? - See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjwgFOeWNhE Here is some brief theory behind Aneutronic Fusion, a form of nuclear fusion which produces no harmful neutron radiation, eliminating the need for heavy shielding in energy plants and spacecraft engines. The reaction can be initiated under a picosecond laser pulse which is aimed at a metal target producing protons which can fuse with Boron atoms in the molecular lattice of the fuel substance. The alpha particles generated from this reaction can be converted directly to an electrical current using alpha voltaics. Due to the reaction being initiated by the laser beam, all radiation emitted stops as soon as the laser is switched off allowing for the highest level of control for a nuclear reaction. Due to the nuclear test ban treaty, nuclear propulsion spacecraft engines have never been deployed in space, creating a huge set back in our ability to reach deep space. Aneutronic fusion, if viable, could act as a loophole around the test ban treaty as it is impossible for this technology to be used as a weapon as no harmful radiation is generated. Other plans for nuclear propulsion engines include gas core electromagnetic fission reactors which could generate high levels of ultraviolet photon pressure to propel a spacecraft, however such a technology would not be viable until the late 21st century. Helium-3, Lithium-7 and Boron-11 are the isotopes which can be fused with protons to produce energy. in p-11B fusion the proton and boron-11 nucleus are fused and form a short-lived excited state of a carbon-12 nucleus, sometimes called a Hoyle state in the Triple-Alpha fusion cycle. The unstable carbon-12 Hoyle state then decays by gamma decay into beryllium-8 and an alpha particle. Beryllium-8 then decays by gamma decay into two helium nuclei. the p-11B fusion reaction requires the most energy, however 11B has a large cross-section for alpha particles and the reaction gives off 3 alpha particles for every 1 consumed, so in principle a critical mass for fusion can be reached. The p --7Li reaction has no advantage over p --11B, given its somewhat lower cross section. But this is mitigated by having double the power output. Helium-3 is an ideal potential aneutronic fusion fuel, however it is only present in very low quantities on the Earth and requires nuclear fission reactions to make it, which removes the purpose of a self-sustaining fusion energy industry altogether. The far side of the Moon, Mercury, Mars and gas planets such as Jupiter and Saturn have the largest quantities of Helium-3 in the solar system, so space exploration is required to make Helium-3 fusion possible. Hence Helium-3 is most likely to be a second or third generation nuclear fuel. Therefore Boron-11 is currently the best isotope on earth for studying the aneutronic fusion reaction process and to design a nuclear reactor/engine around the principle, at least until lunar mining gets underway which may not be until mid to late 21st century. Therefore the development of these principles should continue with 11B aneutronic fusion research so the technology exists to use Helium-3 when a system exists to have it on tap from the moon.
Views: 542056 Muon Ray
Lawrence Krauss on Science and Morality
 
13:57
Professor Lawrence Krauss speaks about how morality can be developed by scientific principles, education and experiences in a society and that it is not exclusive to religion. Religious views may teach some moral disciplines, but society as a whole will naturally evolve morality as it develops and becomes more advanced. Advanced societies need to develop strong moral centers around difficult issues if the people within them are to survive and grow. Issues such as racial, gender and sexual equality, children rights, animal rights and the moral obligation to protect and sustain the environment are all examples of scientific and social morals that will develop through the logic and reasoning abilities of an advanced society as long as the social changes needed to implement them are met without an unreasonable impedance.
Views: 3801 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman Lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics: QED. 7/8
 
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Part 8:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ElesRmW3fQ Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum electrodynamcis, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. one of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is was an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the Path Integral formulation of Relativistic Quantum mechanics, used in Quantum Field Theory, interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in Liquid Helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter, e.g volume. he also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water- his high intelligence and independant way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, Commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety proceedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration.
Views: 24444 Muon Ray
What Happens When Black Holes Collide? - Kip Thorne
 
12:54
(With Spanish Subtitles) Professor Kip Thorne discusses some of the newest theoretical findings into what happens when 2 black holes collide and merge in space and what happens to the fabric of spacetime in the vicinity of this extremely violent event. The energy released, in the form of gravitational waves, from this collision has been calculated to be 10,000 times the combined electromagnetic luminosity of every star in the known universe. Although this massive energy release lasts for only a short burst of time, it is by far the most energetic event that can occur in the known universe with the exception of the Big Bang itself. Using gravitational wave detectors, many scientists have proposed ways to detect these gravitational waves which could travel for millions of light years from distant galaxies before dissipating. Large baseline laser interferometers, such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, LIGO, have the best chance of making the initial discovery claim of detecting gravitational waves. Global radio telescope networks and even superfluid interferometers using liquid Helium have also been proposed as experimental tools to detect gravitational waves emitted from such violent events. Once discovered, many theories concerning the origin of the universe could be tested. Since the big bang event itself occurred under similar, although much greater, energies than colliding black holes it stands to reason that a considerable flux of gravitational waves must have been emitted by the event. Since gravitational waves travel at the speed of light, the most ancient gravitational waves must come from the period after the big bang where the gravitational interaction decoupled from the Grand Unified Force. Therefore gravitational wave observations are the key to studying the event closest to the creation of the universe, where the gravitational force itself was formed. The new discoveries that could be made using gravitational wave detectors could be as world changing, perhaps even more so, than when Einstein developed his General Theory of Relativity almost a century ago.
Views: 108421 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman QED Lecture 2, Reflection and Transmission : 1/7
 
14:50
Part 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sccs-XG33EU&feature=channel_video_title Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum electrodynamcis, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. one of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is was an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the Path Integral formulation of Relativistic Quantum mechanics, used in Quantum Field Theory, interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in Liquid Helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter, e.g volume. he also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water- his high intelligence and independant way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, Commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety proceedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration.
Views: 21999 Muon Ray
Higgs Boson Discovery announcement by Peter Higgs
 
08:00
4th of July 2012, this is the day the Higgs Boson was discovered by the human race. After 45 years of searching, Peter Higgs can now announce to the world how he has seen the culmination of his life's work finally blossom into a tangible result, a result which has brought an all too human emotion to this triumph. Francois Englert, Carl Hagen and Gerald Guralnik are also present in this announcement, who created the theory along with the late Robert Brout. For this reason it could also be referred to as the HEB-Boson. The Higgs field and resulting Higgs boson are a vital part of the Electroweak Interaction and the Standard Model of Particle Physics. In the absence of the Higgs field, when a Local Gauge is applied to the Lagrangian of the Electroweak Interaction we are left with force-carrying bosons that are massive, the W and Z Bosons with masses of ~80GeV and ~90GeV respectively. This would be okay for the Photon as it has no mass, but why are the W and Z Bosons massive? The Higgs mechanism was the most favoured explanation for solving this problem. In brief, the Higgs field is introduced to 'break' the symmetry of the Electroweak theory, which allows particles to have mass. This Higgs mechanism is important as it not only explains how the heavy bosons become massive but also provides an explanation as to how the fermions come to have mass. The Mechanism of the interaction is simple to understand. Where the Electroweak Interaction couples to electric and weak (or flavour) charges and the Strong Interaction couples to colour charge, the Higgs interaction couples to mass. The process by which the Higgs gives fermions mass is via the Yukawa potential. This potential gives the coupling strength of the Higgs to all types of fermions, the stronger the coupling, the more mass the particle will have. Hence the Higgs Boson couples more strongly to more massive particles, hence the energies of the LHC were necessary to create the most massive particles for the Higgs to couple with. Why we needed this boson is a bit more complicated, which corresponds to Peter Higgs, Yoichiro Nambu and Jeffrey Goldstone's theoretical research. In the Electroweak interaction you can examine the Lagrangian in a similar way to those for Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and also Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Starting with the Dirac Lagrangian, when a Local Gauge is applied the resulting Lagrangrian is not invariant under the transformation. The local gauge transformation applied to the Langrangian is dependent on the symmetry, for example for the weak force we use SU(2) symmetry as we want physics invariant under swapping up-like and down-like fermions. When a Local Gauge Symmetry is applied to the Electroweak Lagrangian it does not remain invariant under the gauge transformation. This can be rectified by the introduction of appropriate fields, which have associated mass-less bosons W1, W2, W3 and B. The SU(2)xU(1) symmetry of the electroweak theory is non-abelian which means that the bosons interact with each other as well as with fermions. The Electroweak theory needs to end up with three massive bosons (2 charged and 1 neutral) and also a mass-less boson. The Goldstone Theorem provides a mechanism by which the 4 mass-less bosons from the original symmetry can become the four Electroweak bosons described above. The Goldstone theorem states "that for any continuous symmetry broken, there exists a mass-less particle, the Goldstone boson." The result is that for each broken generator, there is a resulting mass-less scalar boson. The Higgs mechanism is the process applied to Electroweak theory. A complex doublet Higgs field can be included in the theory and this Higgs field breaks the symmetry of the problem while retaining local gauge invariance. This Higgs field (two complex scalar fields which transform under the SU(2) symmetry) will, via the Goldstone Theorem, result in a scalar Higgs boson and 3 Goldstone bosons which will provide mass. The three Goldstone bosons interact with the original fields to provide mass for the W+, W- and Z bosons while leaving the fourth boson mass-less. This can be seen mathematically by looking at the changed form of the Electroweak Lagrangian due to the introduction of the Higgs fields. There is a reason to believe that the Higgs Boson discovered is not the garden-variety Higgs that physicists were expecting. It's relatively low mass may place it in the Supersymmetric regime, and may be humanity's first probe into Supersymmetry. If the Boson was discovered to be a singlet it would also be the first fundamental singlet ever discovered, sparking new interest in finding the last piece of the singlet, vector, tensor boson puzzle: The Graviton, the force carrier for the gravitational force and the key ingredient in the Theory of Everything, "The Promised Land" of Physics that will explain how General Relativity works with Quantum Theory in a Grand Unified Force.
Views: 126137 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman Lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics: QED. 3/8
 
09:40
Part 4:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GqTvGLVwnQ4 Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum electrodynamcis, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. one of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is was an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the Path Integral formulation of Relativistic Quantum mechanics, used in Quantum Field Theory, interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in Liquid Helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter, e.g volume. he also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water- his high intelligence and independant way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, Commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety proceedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration.
Views: 39811 Muon Ray
Paul Dirac on Dimensionless Physical Constants and "Large Number Hypothesis"
 
09:16
Paul Dirac was one of the most proficient theoretical physicists of the 20th century. In this interview, Dirac himself talks about the existence of dimensionless, fundamental constants in physics. These constants are numbers, usually ratios, which contain no units and are therefore universal. No matter what units you use, a dimensionless number will always be measured to be the same. The most widely known example, from mathematics, is Pi which is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to the diameter of the circle. No matter in what units you measure both the circumference and diameter of a circle, be it feet, meters or stadia, Pi will always be 3.14159265..... The fact that fundamental physics constants exist as dimensionless constants means that they can act as landmarks in a physical theory; if predictions are made by a theory that create a dimensionless constant of a given value and if that value is then confirmed by experiment then the theory is deemed acceptable in physics. An example of this is the lepton g-factor in physics, by which it is possible using Quantum Electrodynamics, to predict its value theoretically which matches experimental measurements to an accuracy of 1 part in a billion. This is the most accurate prediction in the history of mankind and demonstrates the predictive power of quantum mechanics, no matter how strange it is. Paul Dirac also seems to make reference to his famous and controversial "Large Number Hypothesis" here, which is not accepted by many theoretical physicists, stating that the similar sizes seen in some of fundamental physics constants is coincidental. It seems a crucial part in Dirac's thinking what there were no coincidences in physics and that theory should be able to explain why certain numbers are so large, independent of units, compared to others. In a way Dirac could be correct in certain aspects of this, as the observed range of the fundamental forces of nature, independent of units, are a result of the nature of the forces themselves are are not entirely coincidental. For example, the weak nuclear force is short ranged due to the Higg's mechanism and the Strong nuclear force is short ranged due to the property of Asymptotic Freedom in QCD, where the strong force screens itself at short distances, making it easy for the force to bind quarks and gluons, and strong at large distances making quarks difficult to break apart thus keeping them confined in protons and neutrons. The strength of the electromagnetic force is also dependent on the distance, as screening of the vacuum is diminished at extremely short distances making the electric charge infinitly large at singular points. These infinities led to the development of renormalization being developed to perform calculations in quantum field theory which was a procedure which Dirac disliked, possibly because it was a way to eliminate large numbers rather than explain their existence. Nevertheless, this method does work so there may in fact be no reason for why large numbers exist in physics, anymore than the reason for the infinite regress of decimal points seen in many mathematical constants, such as Pi or Euler's Constant. His dislike of renormalization, developed by Feynman and others to reconcile theory and experiment, and his pursuit of the Large Number Hypothesis meant that Dirac was also a controversial figure in the physics community, sometimes viewing pure theory as being superior to experimental verification. Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac was one of the founders of quantum theory and reconciled quantum mechanics with Einstein's theory of special relativity in the equation which bears his name, the Dirac Equation. Using this equation, Dirac predicted the existence of antimatter by finding that for his equation to work, charged quanta as described by relativity must be roots of the square root of the normalized charge of a particle, hence forming positive and negative terms. From the relativistic terms in his equation Dirac also described the existence of quantum spin as a relativistic phenomenon and described the existence of fermions, by a reinterpretation of Dirac's equation as a "classical" field equation for any point particle of spin ħ/2, itself subject to quantisation conditions involving anti-commutators. Werner Heisenberg later interpreted the equation as a quantum field equation accurately describing all elementary matter particles -- today quarks and leptons -- this Dirac field equation is as central to theoretical physics as the Maxwell, Yang--Mills and Einstein field equations. Dirac is regarded as the founder of quantum electrodynamics, being the first to use that term. He also introduced the idea of vacuum polarisation in the early 1930s. This work was key to the development of quantum mechanics by the next generation of theorists, and in particular Schwinger, Feynman, Sin-Itiro Tomonaga and Freeman Dyson in their formulation of quantum electrodynamics.
Views: 103392 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman Lecture 4 Part 1/7: Problems in QED and The Standard Model of Particle Physics
 
14:01
Part 2:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HZopZzJ7fv4 In this final lecture of the series Feynman discusses the problems which motivated the development of Quantum Electrodynamics and futher problems in the Standard model of particle physics which includes the Electroweak theory developed by Steven Weinberg, Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow which describes the change of particle flavour by means of a type of neutral current which is asymmetric in nature(found in the study of neutrino flavour change in neutrino detectors and the helicity of neutrinos from the polarisation of beta decay experiments found earlier by Chien-Shiung Wu and her colleagues) and in the detection of particles which break the symmetry in electrodynamic and weak interactions, namely the Z-boson wose S matrix matches that of a photon at energies exceeding 100GeV, giving the so-called Electroweak Force. moreover the theory of Nuclear Interactions, in and of themselves, was discovered prior to this, and the interaction of force-carrier particles in the nucleus assumed to exist which explained the missing mass of the atoms and the relativistic properties of the proton and neutron. by detecting high energy cosmic rays and the cascade particles from particle accelerator experiments, a zoo of particles, mesons and baryons was created which were organised in baryon octets and extended into baryon decouplets as new particles were detected with different characteristics which influenced their decay transistions. such decay transitions required force carriers and certain rules for transition which did not induce flavour change but a new force called the color force, or the True Strong Nuclear force. for this force to be conceivable, new particles were required called quarks to describe the decay modes. hence Quantum Chromodynamics was born from the mind of Murry Gell-Mann this theory describes gluons in high order interactions, with probabilities in excess of QED. the interactions were very difficult to Feynman and he preferred to use the parton theory, which is an approximation to QCD and describes very-high energy interactions accurately due to the relative time-dilation of the ultra-relativisitc particles inside baryonic matter which "ignore" intermediates.Feynman, though legendary, did not fully grasp the rule-based QCD interactions which required very many intermediates to give numerical results and the polarsation of the particles produced in jets from QCD experiments with heavy ion colliders built in the late 80's and early 90's which were years after his death
Views: 63913 Muon Ray
Body Heat to Electricity - Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Watch + Charger
 
02:50
The latest prototype of a wearable device I designed and made for charging handheld devices such as smart watches, phones, video game devices, etc, using electricity harvested from body heat using a low voltage thermoelectric generator. The device, through various design trials, has now been reduced to about the size of a conventional wristwatch which is far less awkward than previous versions such as the one the shown here. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_FakHQjafto Thermoelectricity produced from bismuth-selenide peltier elements by the Seebeck effect produces a low voltage and a more or less stable current when a constant temperature differential is created across the element. This can be accomplished by having a constant heat source and a constant heat sink, i.e. a cooling apparatus. The low voltage can be boosted using a standard low voltage boosting circuit which boosts the voltage from millivolts to around 5V. Such circuits have become more and more widespread as the field of energy harvesting grows, with thermoelectric flashlights such as the one demonstrated here being developed for mass production for sale to the public in the near future as people become more aware of renewable energy and as the renewable energy economy grows which will only increase the demand for such devices in the electronics industry over the next decade. Making thermoelectric energy harvesting devices that charge devices with a more intensive energy demand than LEDs is a bigger challenge and requires the device to have more elements and a faster yet more continuous method of harvesting the energy as the temperature differential is diminished as is the case for devices which are cooled by the air as the cooler side eventually heats up itself. As the user moves around, the change in the external environment will affect the amount of power produced. For example, walking or running outside with the device exposed will not only allow more heat to be harvested as the body expels waste heat but the movement will move air across the coolers which will sustain the temperature differential. In cold weather and environments the device will also work very efficiently. In warm weather or if the user is indoors and not moving the amount of power produced will be reduced. Hence the power harvested is intermittent. Ultra-capacitors/Super-capacitors are therefore useful for storing the intermittent periods of a strong temperature differential forming across the elements as a voltage which is contained in the capacitor bank as long as the circuit is not switched. When power is required, the circuit is switched on and the capacitors are drained. The circuit is then switched off to let the charge rebuild again. In this demonstration, the power is transferred periodically into a commercially available lithium-ion power watch which stores the electricity for further use in the range of portable rechargeable devices that people have grown accustomed to in the modern age. As progress continues, devices like this will be improved upon more and more until they are eventually commercially available and affordable for people to incorporate such technology into wearable devices and clothing to have more sustainable sources of energy to power potable technologies on the go without having to depend on power outlets. In the future, it is hoped, that technology such as this will help replace our dependence on inefficient and environmentally unfriendly batteries and an over-reliance on using power outlets to charge small devices which is itself wasteful due to the waste heat created by transformation of current from AC to DC. I would say that by 2040 most clothing will at least have pockets, belts or perhaps even the entire interior of the clothing itself, that have small disks of bismuth selenide wired in series that will be connected to a DC wireless transmitter that will power any handheld device, without wires, in your hand. That is one of the goals I am trying to reach with new versions of this prototype: a contactless, wireless charging system powered by human body heat via a belt. One of the biggest ways which we can link ourselves to technology is to be an energy source to the portable handheld devices we are using at intermittent periods during the day, without being constantly dependent on mains power outlets for charging.
Views: 39153 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman Lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics: QED. 8/8
 
09:45
Second lecture:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UUAG3yDInQQ&feature=channel_video_title Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum electrodynamcis, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. one of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is was an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the Path Integral formulation of Relativistic Quantum mechanics, used in Quantum Field Theory, interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in Liquid Helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter, e.g volume. he also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water- his high intelligence and independant way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, Commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety proceedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration.
Views: 21453 Muon Ray
Murray Gell-Mann on Quantum Mechanics
 
02:59
Murray Gell-Mann briefly shares with us how the fundamental laws of physics, combined with the plethora of random statistical distributions can generate systems which are non-random and which adapt in recognisable patterns and rules as complex adaptive systems. These systems include the laws that govern the evolution of life, the processing of computers and the responses of biological systems to stimuli that, among other things, power our immune systems and ultimately allow the brain to process information into a mind.
Views: 5056 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman - Graduate Employment
 
14:58
Richard Feynman talks about his time working as a research chemist, an intermediate job he took after graduating from college and before his work at Los Alamos on the Manhattan Project. Feynman gives us an insight on what jobs were available for physicists around the time of The Great Depression, namely in electronics, optics and physical chemistry. Feynman also tells us some stories about one of his old friends who introduced him to the field of applied chemistry used for metal plating. One of Richard Feynman's first projects was to develop technology for electroplating metal onto plastic. Feynman developed the original idea of his friend, Bernie Walker, into a successful invention, allowing his employer (and friend) to keep commercial promises he had made but could not have fulfilled otherwise. Feynman also mentions meeting Frederic de Hoffmann who was interested in the metal plating of plastics. Frederic de Hoffmann was another Manhattan Project scientist, who would later design the "Project Orion" starship and go on to be the first President of General Atomics.
Views: 28169 Muon Ray
Wireless Power Transmission with EBG Metamaterial
 
03:09
Full overview of this technology here: http://muonray.blogspot.ie/2014/10/wireless-electrical-energy-transfer.html Using an inkjet printer compatible, conductive graphite ink I developed, I have been able to produce prototype metamaterial circuits for use as antennas for wireless energy transmission. Metamaterials can provide a means to enhance the performance and size of wireless components — for example, by making antennas multi-functional, and reducing the size and cost of front-end filtering. As the antennas become smaller however, the quality of classical metamaterials decreases as the amount of isolation decreases, as the resonators are closer together hence creating cross talk between them which causes sections of the metamaterial to damp out the signal. An Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) metamaterial structure can be used to increase the isolation between antennas close to each other. The decoupling effect is not only a function of frequency but also polarization and coupling-plane configuration. In short, an EBG metamaterial affects photons in the same way semiconductor materials affect electrons as it, in effect, allows one to gate electromagnetic waves, such as Radio or Microwaves, propagating through the metamaterial. This research is derived by finding means to create circuits using electromagnetic waves instead of electric currents for use in sensor and integrated circuit technology. EBG metamaterials can be based on passive metamaterial split ring resonators with diodes that exhibit a variable capacitance, i.e. the varicap effect, which when inserted into the split ring resonator to give a variable frequency response. Experimentation with the varicap effect need not remain in the realms of advanced electronics or solid state physics labs. All semiconductor junction devices exhibit the effect, some to a surprising degree. Although many common devices exhibit the effect, they are not designed for that purpose so the effect can vary widely between one batch of a certain device and another. Varicap diodes can be typically used in EBG Metamaterials, creating a capacitance are on the order of 16 picoFarads which creates the bandgap. In practice, the Philips BA 102 varicap and a common rectifier diode, the 1N5408, exhibit similar changes in junction capacitance. So there can be many inclusions of cheap electronics in metamaterials, allowing them to be mass produced easily and cheaply. However, for quality testing of split ring resonators in prototype metamaterials, high quality varicap diodes are recommended for initial testing, after a success it is then reasonable to see if cheaper diode types can be used for manufacturing the metamaterial type en mass. While headlining applications — such as cloaking and invisibility — gain much public fanfare, there are many practical but often overlooked challenges in applying metamaterials to real-world applications. Due to the resonant nature of most metamaterial solutions, the approaches for achieving broadband effective properties are challenging. The principle of loss, or dissipation of the electromagnetic energy through its interaction with the material, presents a significant barrier for applications requiring transparency or high-efficiency transmission. Additionally, the creation of manufacturable bulk materials, beyond a few stacked surfaces, can be a significant challenge for materials and manufacturing engineers. The difficulty of this process is amplified as metamaterial features are pushed down into the nano-scale required for optical frequencies. Ultimately, the success of metamaterials requires an emphasis on the ability to model, design and manufacture them for system applications in order to create a sufficient engineering base for their improvement to work in different regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum, with research into employing them for terahertz and infrared frequencies ongoing until the "holy-grail" of generating visible light metamaterials can be conceived.
Views: 8524 Muon Ray
SuperHydrophobic Carbon Nanoparticle Film from Candle Soot!
 
02:09
Here's the principles behind this experiment - http://muonray.blogspot.ie/2015/12/nanotechnology-made-easy-and-cheap.html In this simple, DIY at home science experiment. I will show you how to make Super-Hydrophobic, "Lotus Effect" Carbon Nanoparticle films from ordinary candle soot on an ordinary coin from my wallet! No magic, only science! Always remember safety first if trying this for yourself.
Views: 2535 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman Computer Heuristics Lecture
 
01:15:47
Introduction Article to Heuristics and Metaheuristics - http://muonray.blogspot.ie/2016/04/meta-heuristics-and-universal-power-law.html Richard Feynman, Winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics, gives us an insightful lecture about computer heuristics: how computers work, how they file information, how they handle data, how they use their information in allocated processing in a finite amount of time to solve problems and how they actually compute values of interest to human beings. These topics are essential in the study of what processes reduce the amount of work done in solving a particular problem in computers, giving them speeds of solving problems that can outmatch humans in certain fields but which have not yet reached the complexity of human driven intelligence. The question if human thought is a series of fixed processes that could be, in principle, imitated by a computer is a major theme of this lecture and, in Feynman's trademark style of teaching, gives us clear and yet very powerful answers for this field which has gone on to consume so much of our lives today. No doubt this lecture will be of crucial interest to anyone who has ever wondered about the process of human or machine thinking and if a synthesis between the two can be made without violating logic.
Views: 529002 Muon Ray
Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Module for Appliances and Wearables
 
04:19
Article + Schematic + Components List: http://muonray.blogspot.ie/2017/11/thermal-energy-harvesting-projects.html A demonstration video showcasing how a small energy harvester circuit (using an LTC3108) can be used to harvest low levels of heat energy from a thermoelectric generator (TEG). The TEG can be heated on one side with a low to medium heat source (i.e from body heat or waste heat from an appliance) and cooled on the other side using an aluminium heat sink. Using magnets on the side of the heat sink we can hold the TEG module and circuit onto a metal appliance for energy harvesting, such as a steel central heating boiler, radiator or piping. In this demonstration, the energy harvester circuit is used to power a colour cycling RGB LED. It is hoped that small energy harvesters will soon be universally incorporated within microelectronics such as IOT devices, sensor stations, WiFi routers, drones and wearable electronics. Incorporating energy harvesting helps devices become more autonomous as by including the ability to charge and power themselves using the environment and waste energy sources such as waste heat produced by machines.
Views: 16439 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman's Story of Particle Physics
 
41:31
A 40 minute audio recording, restored with visual aids and diagrams, given by the legendary physicist and educator Richard Feynman on the history and development of the search for the fundamental structure of matter, from atomic physics to elementary particle physics. I personally restored this audio and produced the video for anyone with an interest, or even just a mild curiosity, in the world of particle physics and what scientific discoveries has happened, and continues to happen, at particle accelerator facilities such as at Fermilab, SLAC and of course CERN. This is a good lecture for anyone who wants a relatively quick but concise lecture from one of the grand masters of the field of physics. The story of how humanity's knowledge of matter, from the Periodic Table to the Standard Model of Particle Physics, developed is a very interesting one and shows that once we think we have found simplicity in physics, more complicated and unexpected phenomena and patterns occur again at a deeper level as nature does not give up its secrets so easily and never seems to let us get too complacent in our assumed mastery of a particular field. This has of course generated more and more discoveries and technological breakthroughs in their wake, accelerating our knowledge of matter and energy and increasing our power to manipulate it.
Views: 243922 Muon Ray
Introduction to Particle Physics Part 1/4
 
45:15
Introduction to Particle Physics (For Physicists and Non-Physicists) Part 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YGn_hf5rddg&feature=plcp Part 1 of a 4 part lecture series by Physicist Frank Close. Intended for anyone with an interest in Quantum, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Views: 43819 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman Lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics: QED. 5/8
 
09:45
Part 5: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SjsZjk6ClGw Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum electrodynamcis, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. one of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is was an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the Path Integral formulation of Relativistic Quantum mechanics, used in Quantum Field Theory, interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in Liquid Helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter, e.g volume. he also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water- his high intelligence and independant way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, Commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety proceedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration.
Views: 31025 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman Lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics: QED. 4/8
 
09:46
Part 4:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_eGKH-EMmc Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum electrodynamcis, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. one of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is was an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the Path Integral formulation of Relativistic Quantum mechanics, used in Quantum Field Theory, interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in Liquid Helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter, e.g volume. he also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water- his high intelligence and independant way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, Commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety proceedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration.
Views: 33065 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman - Fixing Radios
 
13:02
Richard Feynman speaks about how, as 12 year old boy, he was asked by repairmen in a hotel to fix radios; prompting him to make a small business out of it. Using the same lab he had made as a 10 year old, he also was employing his sister Joan as an assistant at a salary of four cents a week. By 15, he'd taught himself trigonometry, advanced algebra, analytic geometry and calculus, and in his last year of high school won the New York University Math Championship, shocking the judges not only by his score, but by how much higher it was than those of his competitors. As with any person, childhood events and experience help shape people as they grow up and influences lifestyle choices. It is important to note that Richard Feynman was not given these opportunities to experiment, explore and grow by pure chance. In this case his aunt, who owned the hotel, had told people about her nephew's abilities and helped nurture them. Similarly his father and mother fueled his curiosity and helped him grow mentally. Richard's sister Joan also helped him develop, as she was equally curious herself thanks to an upbringing equally nurturing to her mind Richard's and allowed her to become an astrophysicist. Richard's first wife, second wife and children also had an impact on his unique outlook on the world and also helped him communicate his ideas, making him the legendary teacher and lecturer that millions of people, both scientists and laymen, appreciate today. The story of Richard Feynman is something we can all learn from, parents in particular, in that we should always nurture the positive aspects in our children, siblings, friends and life partners to help them grow.
Views: 20997 Muon Ray
Richard Feynman Lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics: QED. 2/8
 
09:50
Part 3:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9PNp-UK-Vo Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum electrodynamcis, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. one of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is was an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the Path Integral formulation of Relativistic Quantum mechanics, used in Quantum Field Theory, interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in Liquid Helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter, e.g volume. he also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water- his high intelligence and independant way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, Commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety proceedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration.
Views: 49594 Muon Ray
Stephen Hawking Lecture - How to Escape Out of a Black Hole
 
33:40
Professor Stephen Hawking gave this very interesting and fun lecture at the University of Southern California College of Letters, Arts and Sciences in which he gives us a brief history of black holes and a way in which we might be theoretically able to travel through them. “If you feel you are in a black hole, don’t give up,” says Professor Hawking. Black holes are the remains of stars that have collapsed under their own gravity, producing gravitational forces so strong that even light can’t escape. Anything that falls inside is thought to be ripped apart by the massive gravity, never to been seen or heard from again. What you may not know is that physicists have been arguing for 40 years about what happens to the information about the physical state of those objects once they fall in. Quantum mechanics says that this information cannot be destroyed, but general relativity says it must be – that’s why this argument is known as the information paradox. Now Hawking says this information never makes it inside the black hole in the first place. “I propose that the information is stored not in the interior of the black hole as one might expect, but on its boundary, the event horizon,” The event horizon is the sphere around a black hole from inside which nothing can escape its clutches. Hawking is suggesting that the information about particles passing through is translated into a kind of hologram – a 2D description of a 3D object – that sits on the surface of the event horizon. “The idea is the super translations are a hologram of the ingoing particles,” he said. “Thus they contain all the information that would otherwise be lost.” In the 1970s Hawking introduced the concept of Hawking radiation – photons emitted by black holes due to quantum fluctuations. Originally he said that this radiation carried no information from inside the black hole, but in 2004 changed his mind and said it could be possible for information to get out. Just how that works is still a mystery, but Hawking now thinks he’s cracked it. His new theory is that Hawking radiation can pick up some of the information stored on the event horizon as it is emitted, providing a way for it to get out. But don’t expect to get a message from within, he said. “The information about incoming particles is returned, but in a chaotic and useless form. This resolves the information paradox. For all practical purposes, the information is lost.” Last year Hawking made headlines for saying “there are no black holes” – although what he actually meant was a little more complicated, as he proposed replacing the event horizon with a related concept, an apparent horizon. “The message of this lecture is that black holes ain’t as black as they are painted. They are not the eternal prisons they were once thought,” Hawking said. “Things can get out of a black hole both on the outside and possibly come out in another universe.”
Views: 540808 Muon Ray

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